Saturday, August 29, 2015

Heidi Hankins in news (海迪·汉金斯_百度百科)


Solent News
In many ways, Heidi Hankins is like many other 4-year-old girls: She likes her Barbies and Legos and snuggling up with her favorite book.
But she's a little different in other ways, such as her I.Q. The little girl's score is a whopping 159, just below acknowledged eggheads like Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and way above the 100 score that is considered average.
With that remarkable score, she's just been admitted into Mensa, an organization that only allows people whose I.Q.s rank in the top two percent of the population. Now the preschooler from Winchester, UK, has the opportunity to participate in parties and cultural events with fellow brainiacs including Oscar-winning actress Geena Davis and former porn star Asia Carrera.
There are also younger members such as Oscar Rigley, who joined in 2009 when he was under 2-and-a-half years old, and Elise Tan Roberts, who joined that same year at 3.
But it wasn't Heidi's bright idea to join Mensa. Her father, Matthew Hankins, 46, a lecturer at the University of Southampton, came up with that one.
"We always thought Heidi was pretty bright because she was reading early," he told the Hampshire Chronicle. "I happen to specialize in measuring I.Q.s in children, and I was curious about her and the results were off the scale."
Hankins had a good idea his daughter was gifted from a young age. He said Heidi was drawing princesses and animals at 14 months and taught herself to read using a computer when she was 18 months old, according to the Daily Mail.
"Heidi has really flourished quicker than other children –- academically, artistically and physically," Hankins told the paper.
Heidi is very intelligent by all accounts, but learning experts like cognitive psychologist (and Huffington Post blogger) Scott Barry Kaufman aren't ready to hand her a Nobel Prize or a Pulitzer just yet.
"What we must understand is that Heidi can be extremely high in this one dimension but be a normal, average young girl on many other dimensions, including social and emotional development," he wrote on The Huffington Post. "To become a genius takes so much more than just being high on one trait. It takes many, many factors coming together, such as drive, imagination, opportunity, perseverance, and just plain luck."
Heidi's parents are now looking at schools for her and are considering skipping a school year to make sure she is challenged by her work. It might not be easy considering she is already solving addition and subtraction problems, drawing figures of people and writing in sentences.
CORRECTION: An earlier version of this article listed Isaac Asimov as a Mensa member with whom Hankins could associate. While he was a member, he is deceased and unavailable for social functions.

Emily Dickinson

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Emily Dickinson
Photograph of Emily Dickinson, seated, at the age of 16
This daguerreotype taken at Mount Holyoke, December 1846 or early 1847 is the only authenticated portrait of Emily Dickinson later than childhood. The original is held by the Archives and Special Collections at Amherst College.[1]
Born Emily Elizabeth Dickinson
December 10, 1830
Amherst, Massachusetts
Died May 15, 1886 (aged 55)
Amherst, Massachusetts
Occupation Poet
Notable works List of Emily Dickinson poems
Emily Elizabeth Dickinson (December 10, 1830 – May 15, 1886) was an American poet. Dickinson was born in Amherst, Massachusetts. Although part of a prominent family with strong ties to its community, Dickinson lived much of her life highly introverted. After studying at the Amherst Academy for seven years in her youth, she briefly attended the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary before returning to her family's house in Amherst. Considered an eccentric by locals, she developed a noted penchant for white clothing and became known for her reluctance to greet guests or, later in life, to even leave her bedroom. Dickinson never married, and most friendships between her and others depended entirely upon correspondence.
While Dickinson was a prolific private poet, fewer than a dozen of her nearly 1,800 poems were published during her lifetime.[2] The work that was published during her lifetime was usually altered significantly by the publishers to fit the conventional poetic rules of the time. Dickinson's poems are unique for the era in which she wrote; they contain short lines, typically lack titles, and often use slant rhyme as well as unconventional capitalization and punctuation.[3] Many of her poems deal with themes of death and immortality, two recurring topics in letters to her friends.
Although Dickinson's acquaintances were most likely aware of her writing, it was not until after her death in 1886 — when Lavinia, Dickinson's younger sister, discovered her cache of poems — that the breadth of her work became apparent to the public. Her first collection of poetry was published in 1890 by personal acquaintances Thomas Wentworth Higginson and Mabel Loomis Todd, though both heavily edited the content. A complete, and mostly unaltered, collection of her poetry became available for the first time when scholar Thomas H. Johnson published The Poems of Emily Dickinson in 1955. Despite some unfavorable reception and skepticism over the late 19th and early 20th centuries regarding her literary prowess, Dickinson is now almost universally considered to be one of the most significant of all American poets.[4][5]

Life

Family and early childhood

The Dickinson children (Emily on the left), ca. 1840. From the Dickinson Room at Houghton Library, Harvard University.
Emily Elizabeth Dickinson was born at the family's homestead in Amherst, Massachusetts, on December 10, 1830, into a prominent, but not wealthy, family.[6] Two hundred years earlier, her patrilineal ancestors had arrived in the New World—in the Puritan Great Migration—where they prospered.[7] Emily Dickinson's paternal grandfather, Samuel Dickinson, had almost single-handedly founded Amherst College.[8] In 1813, he built the homestead, a large mansion on the town's Main Street, that became the focus of Dickinson family life for the better part of a century.[9] Samuel Dickinson's eldest son, Edward, was treasurer of Amherst College for nearly forty years, served numerous terms as a State Legislator, and represented the Hampshire district in the United States Congress. On May 6, 1828, he married Emily Norcross from Monson. They had three children:
By all accounts, young Emily was a well-behaved girl. On an extended visit to Monson when she was two, Emily's Aunt Lavinia described Emily as "perfectly well & contented—She is a very good child & but little trouble."[11] Emily's aunt also noted the girl's affinity for music and her particular talent for the piano, which she called "the moosic".[12]
Dickinson attended primary school in a two-story building on Pleasant Street.[13] Her education was "ambitiously classical for a Victorian girl".[14] Her father wanted his children well-educated and he followed their progress even while away on business. When Emily was seven, he wrote home, reminding his children to "keep school, and learn, so as to tell me, when I come home, how many new things you have learned".[15] While Emily consistently described her father in a warm manner, her correspondence suggests that her mother was regularly cold and aloof. In a letter to a confidante, Emily wrote she "always ran Home to Awe [Austin] when a child, if anything befell me. He was an awful Mother, but I liked him better than none."[16]
On September 7, 1840, Dickinson and her sister Lavinia started together at Amherst Academy, a former boys' school that had opened to female students just two years earlier.[13] At about the same time, her father purchased a house on North Pleasant Street.[17] Emily's brother Austin later described this large new home as the "mansion" over which he and Emily presided as "lord and lady" while their parents were absent.[18] The house overlooked Amherst's burial ground, described by one local minister as treeless and "forbidding".[17]

Teenage years

They shut me up in Prose –
As when a little Girl
They put me in the Closet –
Because they liked me "still" –
Still! Could themself have peeped –
And seen my Brain – go round –
They might as wise have lodged a Bird
For Treason – in the Pound –
Emily Dickinson, c. 1862[19]
Dickinson spent seven years at the Academy, taking classes in English and classical literature, Latin, botany, geology, history, "mental philosophy," and arithmetic.[20] Daniel Taggart Fiske, the school's principal at the time, would later recall that Dickinson was "very bright" and "an excellent scholar, of exemplary deportment, faithful in all school duties".[21] Although she had a few terms off due to illness—the longest of which was in 1845–1846, when she was enrolled for only eleven weeks[22]—she enjoyed her strenuous studies, writing to a friend that the Academy was "a very fine school".[23]
Dickinson was troubled from a young age by the "deepening menace" of death, especially the deaths of those who were close to her. When Sophia Holland, her second cousin and a close friend, grew ill from typhus and died in April 1844, Emily was traumatized.[24] Recalling the incident two years later, Emily wrote that "it seemed to me I should die too if I could not be permitted to watch over her or even look at her face."[25] She became so melancholic that her parents sent her to stay with family in Boston to recover.[23] With her health and spirits restored, she soon returned to Amherst Academy to continue her studies.[26] During this period, she first met people who were to become lifelong friends and correspondents, such as Abiah Root, Abby Wood, Jane Humphrey, and Susan Huntington Gilbert (who later married Emily's brother Austin).
In 1845, a religious revival took place in Amherst, resulting in 46 confessions of faith among Dickinson's peers.[27] Dickinson wrote to a friend the following year: "I never enjoyed such perfect peace and happiness as the short time in which I felt I had found my savior."[28] She went on to say that it was her "greatest pleasure to commune alone with the great God & to feel that he would listen to my prayers."[28] The experience did not last: Dickinson never made a formal declaration of faith and attended services regularly for only a few years.[29] After her church-going ended, about 1852, she wrote a poem opening: "Some keep the Sabbath going to Church – / I keep it, staying at Home".[30]
During the last year of her stay at the Academy, Emily became friendly with Leonard Humphrey, its popular new young principal. After finishing her final term at the Academy on August 10, 1847, Dickinson began attending Mary Lyon's Mount Holyoke Female Seminary (which later became Mount Holyoke College) in South Hadley, about ten miles (16 km) from Amherst.[31] She was at the seminary for only ten months. Although she liked the girls at Holyoke, Dickinson made no lasting friendships there.[32] The explanations for her brief stay at Holyoke differ considerably: either she was in poor health, her father wanted to have her at home, she rebelled against the evangelical fervor present at the school, she disliked the discipline-minded teachers, or she was simply homesick.[33] Whatever the specific reason for leaving Holyoke, her brother Austin appeared on March 25, 1848, to "bring [her] home at all events".[34] Back in Amherst, Dickinson occupied her time with household activities.[35] She took up baking for the family and enjoyed attending local events and activities in the budding college town.[36]

Early influences and writing

When she was eighteen, Dickinson's family befriended a young attorney by the name of Benjamin Franklin Newton. According to a letter written by Dickinson after Newton's death, he had been "with my Father two years, before going to Worcester – in pursuing his studies, and was much in our family."[37] Although their relationship was probably not romantic, Newton was a formative influence and would become the second in a series of older men (after Humphrey) that Dickinson referred to, variously, as her tutor, preceptor or master.[38]
Newton likely introduced her to the writings of William Wordsworth, and his gift to her of Ralph Waldo Emerson's first book of collected poems had a liberating effect. She wrote later that he, "whose name my Father's Law Student taught me, has touched the secret Spring".[39] Newton held her in high regard, believing in and recognizing her as a poet. When he was dying of tuberculosis, he wrote to her, saying that he would like to live until she achieved the greatness he foresaw.[39] Biographers believe that Dickinson's statement of 1862—"When a little Girl, I had a friend, who taught me Immortality – but venturing too near, himself – he never returned"—refers to Newton.[40]
Dickinson was familiar not only with the Bible but also with contemporary popular literature.[41] She was probably influenced by Lydia Maria Child's Letters from New York, another gift from Newton[24] (after reading it, she gushed "This then is a book! And there are more of them!"[24]). Her brother smuggled a copy of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's Kavanagh into the house for her (because her father might disapprove)[42] and a friend lent her Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre in late 1849.[43] Jane Eyre's influence cannot be measured, but when Dickinson acquired her first and only dog, a Newfoundland, she named him "Carlo" after the character St. John Rivers' dog.[43] William Shakespeare was also a potent influence in her life. Referring to his plays, she wrote to one friend "Why clasp any hand but this?" and to another, "Why is any other book needed?"[44]

Adulthood and seclusion

Friday, August 7, 2015

Lower Saxony, look for Wurmberg, Hartz in Germany

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The subject of this article was previously also known as Saxony. For other uses, see Saxony (disambiguation).
Lower Saxony
Land Niedersachsen (German)
Land Neddersassen (Low Saxon)
Lound Läichsaksen (Saterland Frisian)
State of Germany
Flag of Lower Saxony
Flag
Coat of arms of Lower Saxony
Coat of arms
Deutschland Lage von Niedersachsen.svg
Coordinates: 52°45′22″N 9°23′35″E
Country Germany
Capital Hanover
Government
 • Minister President Stephan Weil (SPD)
 • Governing parties SPD / Greens
 • Votes in Bundesrat 6 (of 69)
Area
 • Total 47,624.22 km2 (18,387.81 sq mi)
Population (2013-12-31)[1]
 • Total 7,790,559
 • Density 160/km2 (420/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
ISO 3166 code DE-NI
GDP/ Nominal €213.97 billion (2010)[citation needed]
NUTS Region DE9
Website www.niedersachsen.de
Lower Saxony (German: Niedersachsen [ˈniːdɐzaksən], Low German: Neddersassen; Dutch: Nedersaksen) is a German state (Bundesland) situated in northwestern Germany and is second in area, with 47,624 square kilometres (18,388 sq mi), and fourth in population (8 million) among the sixteen Länder of Germany. In rural areas Northern Low Saxon, a dialect of Low German, and Saterland Frisian, a variety of Frisian, are still spoken, but the number of speakers is declining.
Lower Saxony borders on (from north and clockwise) the North Sea, the states of Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia, Hesse and North Rhine-Westphalia, and the Netherlands. Furthermore, the state of Bremen forms two enclaves within Lower Saxony, one being the city of Bremen, the other, its seaport city of Bremerhaven. In fact, Lower Saxony borders more neighbours than any other single Bundesland. The state's principal cities include the state capital Hanover, Brunswick, Lüneburg, Osnabrück, Oldenburg, Hildesheim, Wolfenbüttel, Wolfsburg and Göttingen.
The northwestern area of Lower Saxony, which lies on the coast of the North Sea, is called East Frisia and the seven East Frisian Islands offshore are popular with tourists. In the extreme west of Lower Saxony is the Emsland, a traditionally poor and sparsely populated area, once dominated by inaccessible swamps. The northern half of Lower Saxony, also known as the North German Plains, is almost invariably flat except for the gentle hills around the Bremen geestland. Towards the south and southwest lie the northern parts of the German Central Uplands: the Weser Uplands and the Harz mountains. Between these two lie the Lower Saxon Hills, a range of low ridges. Thus, Lower Saxony is the only Bundesland that encompasses both maritime and mountainous areas.
Lower Saxony's major cities and economic centres are mainly situated in its central and southern parts, namely Hanover, Brunswick, Osnabrück, Wolfsburg, Salzgitter, Hildesheim and Göttingen. Oldenburg, near the northwestern coastline, is another economic centre. The region in the northeast is called the Lüneburg Heath (Lüneburger Heide), the largest heathland area of Germany and in medieval times wealthy due to salt mining and salt trade, as well as to a lesser degree the exploitation of its peat bogs up until about the 1960s. To the north, the Elbe river separates Lower Saxony from Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Brandenburg. The banks just south of the Elbe are known as Altes Land (Old Country). Due to its gentle local climate and fertile soil it is the state's largest area of fruit farming, its chief produce being apples.
Most of the state's territory was part of the historic Kingdom of Hanover; the state of Lower Saxony has adopted the coat of arms and other symbols of the former kingdom. It was created by the merger of the State of Hanover with several smaller states in 1946.

Geography

Location

Lower Saxony has a natural boundary in the north in the North Sea and the lower and middle reaches of the River Elbe, although parts of the city of Hamburg lie south of the Elbe. The state and city of Bremen is an enclave entirely surrounded by Lower Saxony. The Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region is a cooperative body for the enclave area. To the southeast the state border runs through the Harz, low mountains that are part of the German Central Uplands. The northeast and west of the state – which form roughly three-quarters of its land area – belong to the North German Plain, while the south is in the Lower Saxon Hills, including the Weser Uplands, Leine Uplands, Schaumburg Land, Brunswick Land, Untereichsfeld, Elm and Lappwald. In northeast Lower Saxony is Lüneburg Heath. The heath is dominated by the poor sandy soils of the geest, whilst in the central east and southeast in the loess börde zone there are productive soils with high natural fertility. Under these conditions—with loam and sand-containing soils—the land is well-developed agriculturally. In the west lie the County of Bentheim, Osnabrück Land, Emsland, Oldenburg Land, Ammerland, Oldenburg Münsterland and – on the coast – East Frisia.
The state is dominated by several large rivers running northwards through the state: the Ems, Weser, Aller and Elbe.
The highest mountain in Lower Saxony is the Wurmberg (971 m) in the Harz. For other significant elevations see: List of mountains and hills in Lower Saxony. Most of the mountains and hills are found in the southeastern part of the state. The lowest point in the state, at about 2.5 metres below sea level, is a depression near Freepsum in East Frisia.
The state's economy, population and infrastructure are centred on the cities and towns of Hanover, Stadthagen, Celle, Brunswick, Wolfsburg, Hildesheim and Salzgitter. Together with Göttingen in southern Lower Saxony, they form the core of the Hanover-Brunswick-Göttingen-Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region.